Complexity of diagnosing and treating langerhans cell sarcoma: A case report


Maha Charfi
Maissa Lajnaf
Faten Kallel
Ines Saguem
Olfa Kassar
Moez Elloumi


Introduction: Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is a very rare malignant tumor of Langerhans cells that may metastasize to many organs. The diagnosis of this tumor is difficult and its prognosis is poor.

Aim: To report the difficulty to diagnose LCS, and discuss therapeutic management of this rare entity.

Case presentation: We report a case of LCS in a 52-year-old man who presented with an axillar lymphadenopathy.  The diagnosis of nodular sclerosis type Hodgkin’s disease was established after histologic examination. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (ABVD regimen: Doxorubicin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine) and radiotherapy with a partial response. However, disease recurrence was observed and histological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell sarcoma. A revision of the initial histological examination concluded to the diagnosis of sarcoma from the beginning. We chose the ESHAP (Etoposide, Methylprednisolone, Aracytine, Cisplatin) regimen and clinical improvement of LCS was obtained after 2 cycles but the patient had a fatal outcome and died by disease progression.

Conclusion: Because of its rarity, diagnosis is difficult and an optimal treatment strategy for this disease has not yet been identified. Polychemotherapy can be an effective modality for the treatment of LCS.


Hodgkin lymphoma, Langerhans cell sarcoma, Diagnosis, Chemotherapy



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